Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"I don't consider my prosperity. I'm glad that the work I've done in the past has been extremely fruitful. Everything I can do is leave it in God's grasp and expectation my fans feel what I'm used to. I set aside the effort to give my all.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ Aaliyah Haughton. As I sit tuning in to the irresistible, exotic harmonies of Aaliyah's smooth R and B, I wonder why it needed to occur. For what reason did somebody so youthful with such astounding ability, quality and the possibility to continue ascending increasingly elevated, must be taken from us? The verses whirl around in my mind, saying more regarding the genuine Aaliyah than any media report would ever endeavor. Her appallingly abbreviated life followed the message from inside one of her most renowned tunes, Ã¢â¬Å"If from the start you don't succeed, dust yourself off and attempt again.Ã¢â¬ Aaliyah Dana Haughton was conceived on January sixteenth, 1979 in Brooklyn, New York. Her Grandmother would recount accounts of how she was extraordinary straight out of the belly; brought into the world with a full head of hair. Aaliyah lived in Brooklyn for a long time until, along with her folks and more seasoned sibling, she was moved to Detroit where they could be nearer to family. Her dedicated mother surrendered her instructing employment to think about Rashad and Aaliyah full time. Aaliyah was acquainted with music at a youthful age; her mom would play Stevie Wonder, Marvin Gaye and other such legends while she worked around the house. It wasn't well before Aaliyah was participate, having educated all the words off by heart. She was only six years of age when her ability for singing was perceived by her mom. Before she even began school, the administrations of a voice mentor had been made sure about for her. Aaliyah burned through a large portion of her pre-adolescent years between singing in school plays and trying out for different little TV ventures. At the youthful time of just eight or nine she was beguiling individuals all around Michigan with her sweet, celestial voice, belting out melodies during weddings. Aaliyah sang the very melodies she tuned in to at home, while individuals sat in stunningness, enthusiastically foreseeing the time her voice would develop to its maximum capacity. Her first destruction came when she was only eleven years old. Aaliyah handled a spot on the broadly coordinated ability appear, Star Search. She decided to sing Ã¢â¬ËMy Funny ValentineÃ¢â¬ , a spirit great that she had regularly heard her mom singing, Ã¢â¬ËThat was my Mommy's melody and I needed to resemble my Mommy' she stated, recalling the experience during a meeting. The high expectations she and her family had for triumph where broken when Aaliyah lost, and was torn separated similarly as some other kid would have been. Notwithstanding, with no falls no exercises could be scholarly. With bunches of support from her mom, Aaliyah started to comprehend a possibility critical, one that would control her through her melodic vocation, yet every part of her life. Never surrender. It was just merely months before the splendid, up and coming star was on the ascent once more. At the time her uncle, Barry Hankerson, was hitched to Gladys Knight. A few people scheduled Aaliyah for this, asserting she just got onto the music scene since she knew the opportune individuals, yet without her exceptional ability, none of her future achievement would have been conceivable. Hankerson took his niece to perform with Gladys Knight for five evenings at Bally's Las Vegas Casino. Here, the two would two part harmony on Believe In Yourself and Aaliyah would sing performances. Recalling that she was still just eleven at that point, she was apprehensive and barely proceeded onward the principal night. Her auntie helped her, educating Aaliyah how to work a group and release them up. After two years came the gathering that would set Aaliyah's vocation ablaze. Barry Hankerson acquainted his niece with R. Kelly, an entertainer he was overseeing at that point. Kelly began to look all starry eyed at her wonderful voice, proceeding to turn into her tutor. He wound up composing and delivering all the tracks on her introduction collection, Age Ain't Nothing But A Number. Furthermore, it wasn't Ã¢â¬ relatively few individuals can flaunt a finished collection at only thirteen years old. The way toward selling the collection started in any case, indeed, desires for Aaliyah were not satisfied. Many record organizations passed on the collection Ã¢â¬ a difficulty exceptionally difficult to take at such a powerless age. Her certainty was scratched however her quality was not; Aaliyah was set up to give things another go. Hankerson made his own mark, Blackground Records particularly for his niece. There was no chance he was going to abandon her; she was extremely uncommon to give up. In 1994 the collection was discharged, getting the world's consideration. Her first single, Back And Forth arrived at number one on the R&B/Hip-Hop graph, ousting her coach. Different singles followed including At Your Best (You Are Love), Down With The Clique, and the debased title track. Her sound was new and new to the music world, her special persona dazzling audience members. The craftsman herself jumped at the chance to portray her music as Ã¢â¬Ëstreet yet sweet'. With the achievement of her presentation collection Aaliyah's spirits took off. She had kept data about her age (she was only fifteen at that point) hid, as she needed her triumphs to be founded exclusively on her ability. She didn't look for any points of interest since she was, Ã¢â¬Ëreally useful for somebody so youthful'. Sadly her choice to retain such realities was misinterpreted in. Awful bits of gossip emerged, hindering collection deals and taking steps to obstruct a prosperous vocation. The provocative idea of Age Ain't Nothing But A Number joined with a smidgen of media creative mind and the puzzle of her age started a craze of anecdotes about a connection among Aaliyah and quarter century old R. Kelly. Stories of marriage and even pregnancy were spread. All were denied. The tempest settled and three years passed, leaving many considering what Aaliyah's next undertaking would be. She prodded fans with various visitor appearances, singing tunes from soundtracks and building them up for the time she would genuinely return, more grounded then ever. Aaliyah left R. Kelly behind to demonstrate, more to herself than to any other person, that she had developed as a craftsman and could make it without him. Maybe the gossipy tidbits that had at one point appeared as though they could decimate her had in certainty been a Godsend. Would Aaliyah have settled on this decision if stories of something in excess of a decent fellowship and working organization between the two hadn't jumped up? Whatever her reasons, the change was generally advantageous. She collaborated with the then obscure Missy Elliot and Timbaland and, between the three, another sound was made, by and by compelling to fans. They mixed unpleasant Hip-Hop beats with Aaliyah's smooth, laid-back vocals, the voice of a blessed messenger. The outcome was a cheeky, attractive, sophomore collection, One In A Million. The collection went twofold platinum, putting her among the whizzes of the music business and hushing pundits in their inquiries with respect to whether she had been only a Ã¢â¬Ëone hit wonder.' The principal single from the collection, If Your Girl Only Knew, went directly to number one on the R&B/Hip-Hop diagram, trailed by four different singles including the main radio play title track. Aaliyah never let the distinction go to her head. Between the entirety of her melodic duties she despite everything discovered time for her family, companions and homework. In June 1997 Miss Haughton moved on from the Detroit High School for the Fine and Performing expressions, only one A-grade away from an ideal evaluation score. She had consistently set her sights so high and her assurance paid off. She buckled down through tough situations just as the great, and breathed life into her fantasies. She genuinely was one out of many. It was the ideal opportunity for Aaliyah to direct her concentration toward Hollywood. She started by adhering to her music, recording Journey To The Past for the Anastasia soundtrack and afterward the infectious, Grammy selected, number one hit tune, Are You That Somebody, from the Dr. Dolittle soundtrack. With that track, she truly got a desire for the standard and took a break from the music world to collaborate with Joanne Baron, an acting mentor. With Baron's assistance, Aaliyah's ability for acting was uncovered and, by 1999, she was traveling to Vancouver to shoot her presentation film, Romeo Must Die. She featured close by Jet Li in the adrenalin-fed/Hip-Hop activity flick, in which she was the official maker of the soundtrack. From this came Try Again, the melody that followed an amazing account. The verses came directly from her heart, from the exercises she had learnt. These characteristics took the single as far as possible, arriving at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 singles outline, the principal single ever to do so dependent on Airplay alone. Romeo Must Die started rave surveys and her acting aptitudes were before long looked for all through Hollywood. Her next film was the novel-based Queen Of The Damned. Aristocrat reviews the memory of Aaliyah during the tryout procedure, Ã¢â¬ËShe put her heart, her time, her affection and her life into it. She just tore it out.' It was her second featuring job in simply her subsequent movie, showing to the world she was something other than a hybrid vocalist/on-screen character. Quite a lot more. The arrival of the finished film was intensely anticipated. Much to anyone's dismay that Aaliyah wouldn't be there to observe its prosperity. While shooting Queen Of The Damned, Aaliyah at the same time recorded her third, self-named collection. She was not put off or plagued by her multiplied remaining burden, picking rather to place her everything into the two activities, as she had consistently done. Aaliyah was very much aware of her essence, or absence of it, in the music world; it had been a long time since the arrival of One In A Million. She discharged the dim, feisty, first single, We Need A Resolution, warming fans up, setting them up for what was to come. Aaliyah was discharged on July 17, appeared at number two in the graphs and, in it's first week alone, sold more than 200,000 duplicates. Blackground Records wanted to discharge Rock The Boat and More Than A Woman as consecutive singles; they were getting substantial rotational airplay and right now an amazing r
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Canterbury Tales And Lady Bath Essay Numerous characters in The Canterbury Tales are just portrayed in the littlest detail. Just a bunch are given a physical portrayal and much less are really offered names to pass by. A character that has a most clear detail and furthermore one, whom has a name, is Alice, the Wife of Bath. This great woman is exceptionally glad for what she has achieved throughout everyday life. Additionally, to safeguard her ways she utilizes rationale and reason, Chauncer likewise, never makes a decision about her as he does to numerous different characters, yet lets her represent herself. Albeit one would envision the Lady of Bath to be embarrassed about her lifestyle, she just isn't. With her four dead exes, she has gotten a lot of cash and assets. While wedded, Chauncer gives the feeling that Alice additionally had numerous illicit relationships. These issues have certainly added to her own riches. Hitched now to her fifth spouse, who is a lot more youthful, due to cherish and not only reliant on how much cash he has. All through Alices narrating, the characters will in general assault her. She just returns utilizing straightforward rationale and thinking. Her essential technique for believing is that if god didn't need one to have intercourse, he would not of enabled mankind to do as such. The women conduct is additionally very direct and she appreciates talking a lot. However with having this kind of a disposition, it gives the peruser a genuine gander at one of the most depicted and intriguing characters that Chauncer expounds on. Most different characters from The Canterbury Tales are decided by Chauncers individual guidelines and the measures from that specific timeframe. Alice, the Wife of Bath be that as it may, isn't passed judgment on like this. Chauncer lets the peruser conclude how to pass judgment on her and make her picture. He likewise utilizes next to no incongruity and mockery when he, and different characters talk about Alice. Chauncer basically lets the peruser conclude how to pass judgment on her from recounting her conduct that was generally unordinary for that timeframe. The peruser can without much of a stretch make an exact judgment of her, chiefly on account of her in advance disposition towards numerous parts of life. As observed, the incomparable Alice, Wife of Bath, is glad for her way of life and will make a huge effort to protect it. She is additionally the main character that the peruser can decide for oneself with little contribution from Chauncer. Maybe being the most portrayed character from the novel gives one the feeling that she could likewise be one of the most significant. Her presentation in the introduction, which is one of the longest, additionally demonstrated this. These attributes consolidated; let one envision an excellent image of this woman.
Tuesday, July 28, 2020
Research How Subtle Class Cues Can Backfire on Your Resume So, we all know content and presentation matter when it comes to resumes but what happens when there are hundreds of candidates who all have relevant skills, education, grad average and a perfectly formatted resume?Ever wondered how a recruiter makes a choice if the only thing differentiating you and other candidates are job-unrelated qualities, such as: gender, class, religion or marital status?What is the exact impact of these seemingly irrelevant personal traits? How important is recruitersâ persona in this whole process?In the last couple of years, a few studies strived to provide answers to these exact questions.To put it plainly, researchers tried to inspect whether and to what extent personal traits of a candidate can affect a person reviewing his/or her resume (i.e. his/her job application).This article will deal with results of these studies: whether class cues on a resume affect recruitersâ decision-making process and if so, what can be done to prevent potential negativ e effects thereof.RESUME: NECESSARY BUT POTENTIALLY TRICKY TOOLOne thing is sure: a well-written resume is crucial for a successful job hunt!Being aware of the incredibly competitive global labor market, it is completely logical that high-quality self-promotion became more significant than ever.Resume is an essential part of every job application and an extremely valuable self-marketing tool which should be used to highlight oneâs skills, experience and qualities.But itâs not all rainbows and butterflies!A good resume is a piece of work and its drafting requires time, commitment and effort.Most importantly, just as there are not two identical candidates, there should not be two identical resumes.A resume should reflect your specific background, qualities and why exactly you would be the best fit for the respective position (bold text is intentional).This is not an easy task!And nowadays, it is not unusual for people to hire a professional to help them draft a perfect resume.In m y opinion, this only highlights the significance of this tool in todayâs extremely competitive professional environment.A recent research has shown that an average recruiter spends approximately 8-10 seconds to screen a resume and decide whether a candidate will proceed to the next step of the recruitment process.If you think about it in real time, this is an extremely fast call, hence, every detail in your resume should be exactly on point.And yes, this also applies to the personal information you decide to disclose there. Let us kick off this topic by first reflecting on the concept of a personal informationâ¦ PERSONAL INFORMATION AND EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATIONThis category includes (not exclusively) oneâs:name, address, email address, phone number,race, nationality, ethnicity, religious or political beliefsage, sex, sexual orientation, marital statushealth care history including information on physical/mental disabilityeducational, financial, criminal, employment history etc. Depending on local laws and regulations, some of this information can be considered private and confidential.If applicable, such classification protects you from the obligation to disclose it or talk about it, even if explicitly asked by the interviewer.And although there is an obvious tendency towards stricter legislation in this field, there is still a visible discrepancy between legal regulations and reality.The biggest practical problem with discrimination on the work place and especially, discrimination of candidates during the recruitment process, is the apparent lack of evidence.It is extremely difficult to prove you havenât been hired for a specific discriminatory reason unless this has been explicitly brought up and you have it somewhere on record.Unfortunately, recruiters are rarely that naiveNumerous studies have been conducted, motivated by a desire to inspect the exact range of employment discrimination.The goal was to see whether this kind of behavior can be tracked to resumes pre-screening phase already.All experiments were usually conducted in a comparable way, by sending fake resumes to real employers.These resumes were seemingly identical when it comes to education, experience and skills but differed in specific class cues, such as: gender, religion, class, sexual orientation etc.Some of these cues were obvious and could be identified immediately, e.g. gender (obvious from the candidateâs name).The others, such as class, religion or sexual orientation were only subtly indicated or could only be presumed from certain details in the tested resumes.Let us start by reviewing effects disclosure of class and background cues had on the recruitment processâ¦CLASS AND BACKGROUND CUESA number of studies (published in American sociological Review) examined effects of class and gender cues in a resume. Resumes used were pretty much identical and the only thing differentiating candidates was either their gender or class/social status.Gender could be determined from a candidateâs name, while social class position has been indicated via common and generally accepted categories, e.g. hobbies, awards and extracurricular activities.You are probably thinking to yourself: How does one indicate his or her âclassâ on a resume? Are we still in the 16th century?Indeed, I also found the idea of class indications on a resume slightly disturbing. I will try to explain the way in which this has been done:Higher-class candidates participated in traditionally âupper classâ sports and activities, e.g. polo, sailing, badminton or played classical music. Lower-class candidates engaged in activities with lower financial barriers, such as: football, basketball, athletics or local music club.Regardless of how subtle these indications were, results demonstrated significant differences in the treatment of four relevant categories: higher- and lower-class male candidates and higher- and lower-class female candidates.Higher-class man did extrem ely well in comparison to all other categories: he received more invitations to an interview than all other applicants in the whole study combined!Tragically, he did significantly better than higher-class woman, whose resume was identical to his except for a nameâ¦Yet, none of these findings surprised me as much as this one: Higher-class women had the worst treatment of all categories, including lower-class women!I neither saw it coming nor understood the logic behind such results.Fortunately, researchers behind these studies took additional efforts and tried to provide explanations for these results.Higher-class men are perceived as a better fit to other people working in high-rank firms, firmâs clientele and a general image these firms usually strive to uphold.They are presumed to come with some typically âhigh-classâ assets such as, network of high-class peers, family connections or wealth.Naturally, all of this does not apply to categories of lower-class male and female c andidates.When it comes to higher-class women, it is not exactly clear what are presumed advantages of their status, probably the same as for higher-class men.On the other hand, studies did explain why they are the least desirable of all categories.Higher-class women are generally considered unmotivated for demanding jobs!Their status is associated with wealth or, at least, financial stability. And if money is not a motive, how are these women to be expected to compete, grow and do long hours? Well, they are notâ¦Furthermore, âfamilyâ is a risk factor frequently attributed to candidates from this category.Namely, there is a wide-spread belief these women tend to abandon their well-paid but demanding jobs to be able to dedicate themselves to raising a family.On the other hand, such reasoning does not apply to lower-class female candidates.Career wise, they are considered more dedicated, driven by a wish to secure their, otherwise uncertain, financial situation.Finally, one impor tant remark must be made: test sample of these studies is limited, for only several law and audit firms in the US have been included in the testing.Nonetheless, one can easily presume that similar studies in different branches and/or locations would result in comparable findings which is why these results shouldnât be disregarded easily.Personally, I found them intriguing albeit extremely disturbing.A clear demonstration that, in some respects, we really have not advanced much since the 16th century! Class segregation and stuck up attitudes towards women may not be that openly talked about today but are still very, very real.And while this study only tackled the issue of gender discrimination, there have been many studies and experiments dedicated to inspecting the range of gender discrimination on todayâs labor market in a lot more detailâ¦Discrimination based on Gender and Family Status CuesGender as a ground for discrimination Much has been said about gender discrimination which is why I wonât state the obvious and dwell on this topic too long.Salary gap, bias towards women in leadership and limited possibilities for women are all real issues and unfortunately, we are still far from reaching tangible solutions in this field.Nevertheless, in this article, I was rather interested to see how far-reaching gender discrimination is when it comes to stages of the recruitment process.Letâs put it this way: can it really be that a recruiter looks at my resume and throws it away simply because Iâm a woman?A recent research (Derous, Ryan Serlie, 2015) explored how characteristics of a job and specific biases of a recruiter, e.g. ethnic prejudice or sexism, combine to influence the subsequent decision regarding a concrete candidate.Unfortunately, the effect of sexism proved to be substantialâ¦When the role was traditionally more male or female oriented, it dictated perceptions of fit.To give an example: women were presumed to be better at client relations and interpersonal exchange. Unsurprisingly, they were considered worse fitted for âhigh demandingâ jobs than men.But having a recruiter consider your fitness for a position and judge it poorly is not even the worst-case scenarioâ¦Imagine being turned down for a fantastic job, you would be excellent for, based solely on your name!This is not a myth and numerous academic papers already demonstrated the significance of oneâs name (male or female) by a decision who will proceed to the next stage of the recruitment process.The case of a woman changing her name from Erin to Mack and boosting her resume response rate from 0 to 70 went viral and backs up the statement that âname biasâ, which is actually just another name for gender discrimination, still affects too many female candidates worldwide. Marital and family statusAnother personal information which may appear innocent but can heavily affect your job hunt, is the information about your marital/family status.In the past, this was a common information to be included on a resume but those times long passed.Nowadays, it became quite uncommon, if not even harmful, to disclose this information, for it leaves a lot of room for discrimination.Divorced, separated, widow, single or marriedâ¦Depending on a person reviewing your resume, each of these can be considered wrong, bad or unrepresentative.I can easily imagine a recruiter thinking to him- or herself: âYou failed in marriage so why should we expect you to succeed in your career here?âOn the other hand, you are happily married with two children. Who cares? Are children a feature which will help you do your job better?Especially for female candidates, the sole mention of marital/family status can open door to major discrimination!A woman with a family is considered demotivated for workâ¦Engaged woman is expected to have a family at some point and that is a clear minus.Finally, a single woman may be considered unfit for the corporate âfamilyâ cu lture.The list of possible prejudices is never endingâ¦Sounds harsh and demotivating, I know.Yet, people do tend to hold certain ideas, prejudices and biases and these inevitably affect their decision-making processes (at times, without them even being aware of it).Therefore, if not specifically required, it may be better to leave your marital/family status out of your resumeâ¦Discrimination based on Religion, Race EthnicityReligion as a ground for discriminationBeing a believer may be honorable and price-worthy but note that your future employer may have a completely different attitude when it comes to this topic.Multiple studies have confirmed the following: Religion on your resume can severely hurt your employment chances!In one of these studies, researchers from the University of Connecticut sent 3,200 fake applications to 800 jobs (South of the US). Each employer received four resumes of applicants with comparable job qualifications.The sole difference between these four res umes consisted in their affiliation with a certain religious organization, such as: atheist, Catholic, Jewish or Muslim organization. A control group mentioned no religious affiliation.It turned out that religious affiliation on a resume is a major no go!Applicants who expressed a religious identity were 26 % less likely to receive a response from recruiters.The only group which did not experience any discrimination whatsoever, were those candidates affiliated with Jewish religion and some recruiters even favored them in comparison to other candidates.Muslims were least likely to be contacted by employers, receiving 38 % fewer e-mails and 54 % fewer phone calls than the control group.Overall findings of this study confirmed that even very subtle cues indicating oneâs religion can affect the recruitment process heavily.You may be wondering about the legal perspective of this issue:Religious freedom protects from any kind of discriminatory treatment based on a personâs religion or belief and this protection stretches (at least in theory) to include the recruitment process as well.That be said, nobody should be denied employment based solely on his or her religion.The problem is that job candidates rarely learn religious indications on their resumes took them out of the run for a position. And even if they doubt it, to get an evidence to support such a claim is very hard if not even impossible.Occasionally, job experience or a volunteering position at a certain religious organization may be worth mentioning, for it constitutes a valuable experience and a recruiter may appreciate the knowledge you gained from it.Also, you may be applying in other religiously affiliated organizations and your previous experience is a clear plus.However, more frequently, work experience affiliated to a specific religious organization will not be relevant for a position youâre applying for and in such cases, you may want to consider taking it down from your resume.In any event, you should make sure to know the exact requirements for a desired position and be aware of consequences the sole mention of your religion could have on the application process.Race EthnicityRace and ethnicity have been a common ground for discrimination since the old times. Therefore, it is no wonder researches wanted to test effects of race and/or ethnicity on the hiring process as wellâ¦Researches were conducted in a comparable way: Identical resumes were sent to employers, the only difference being the name of a candidate. Chosen names clearly indicated belonging to a certain race or ethnicity.Results of these studies only confirmed what we all suspectedâ¦ Candidates with names which sounded âwhiteâ experienced a much higher call rates for interviews in comparison to candidates whose names âsounded black, Hispanic or Asianâ.Another study specifically tested two groups, âwhiteâ and âblackâ candidates, and reached the following results: White names received 50 % more callbacks for interviews!These studies also revealed prevalence of whatâs called unconscious bias, hence, a scenario in which people screening resumes do not realize they are stereotyping.When put it in the context of racial stereotyping, this scenario looks something like this: non-white candidates are considered less-qualified for a job without the existence of any real evidence to support such conviction.All that be said, it is no wonder that many people who fall into a racial or ethnic group that is likely to experience negative bias realized the risk and decided to downplay racial and ethnic associations as much as possible.And yes, in some cases, this even involved changing a name on a resume to sound more âwhiteâ!Unfortunately, candidates frequently fear that there is a good chance they could experience judgement and discrimination based on their race or ethnicity and results of above-mentioned studies clearly demonstrate such concerns have a solid ground.STRONG S EPARATION OF BUSINESS AND PERSONAL: PROS AND CONS Bearing in mind all that has been stated previously and somewhat disturbing results of studies and research conducted in this field, one cannot help but wonder: Is there any personal information that does belong in a resume?Indeed, nowadays there is an overall tendency to include as little personal information as possible when applying for jobs.While researching, I noticed that there is an overall preference to not include age, marital status and address in a resume.The general tendency seems to be in favor of the complete separation of business and personal. A good resume should include your name, email address and telephone. If your place of residence is in the same country, even this information is considered irrelevant.One of the apparent pros of such an approach is that youâre only including relevant work-related information, hence, are not burdening a recruiter with what he/she doesnât need.The second obvious advantage is t hat such an approach leaves a lot less room for discrimination and potential biases recruiters may hold.Following up on the above-mentioned studies and research, it is obvious that revealing less may at times be saving you a lot of unnecessary trouble!On the other hand, not revealing anything personal may leave your resume looking blank and dull. Recruiters love stressing out the importance of a personal touch and diversityâ¦ And this makes sense. Imagine yourself reviewing some 80 resumes a dayâ¦ You would also be looking for something which catches your attention!Also, not including some relevant experiences, e.g. job in a religiously affiliated organization, may leave gaps in your resume and leave you appearing less experienced than you actually are.And who would want that? Especially for a young professional, every experience counts!Finally, not revealing relevant personal data may be considered misleading or even fraudulent.So, what is it that you can do? What is considered p ermitted when it comes to adjusting personal information and revealing class cues in a resume?POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS AND WAYS TO AVOID THESE SUBTLE CUESIt dependsâ¦It depends on the information you wish to neutralize and the effect you want to achieve.For example, in the case of age, address and marital status, you would be well advised to simply skip these information, for they are probably not relevant for a position you are applying for.Note that there could be a few exemptions to this general rule, e.g. physically intense job.In this case, it may actually make sense to note your age on the resume. Or a job including frequent travelâ¦ In this specific case, being young, single and without children may in fact bring you some advantage.Furthermore, religion also does not necessarily belong in your resume: chances are that religious affiliations will open door to discrimination while being completely irrelevant for a job you are applying for.Exception to this general claim are jobs an d positions in other religious organizations/institutions, where your previous experience will be an obvious advantage.When it comes to other class cues, other cases may be less clear and more problematic, e.g. the fact that you are a woman and have a female name.Is it worth trying to shorten it or put a more masculine version on your resume?The same dilemma applies to names which can be associated with a specific race or ethnicity. Should you consider modifying your name so that it sounds less âblackâ, Hispanic, Arabian, Jewish or Muslim?Unfortunately, there is no single ârightâ answer to these questions.You can try some of the above-mentioned strategies.You may end up facing a fairly surprised, annoyed or even a very mad interviewer. If this happens, you again wonât achieve the desired result.If the difference in names is small and can be reasonably justified, this strategy may end up working out.However, if you are considering a real name change, you may want to underta ke this in a more formal way (official name change).This dilemma also has another dimension.Are you sure you wish to downplay your personal qualities which in many ways determine your identity and persona?How would you feel if invited to an interview after a name change, knowing that with your real name, that same company failed to consider you?It is difficult to say and the answer varies depending on specific circumstances of a particular case.One thing is clear: The issue of discrimination is still very real.The issue is real in our everyday lives and apparently, on the job market as well.Perhaps a name-change or a clearance of a resume from all personal information can provide short-term solution for some but this is not what we should be striving for!What is needed is a complete shift in the perception, more talk and long-term solutions in this field. Recruiters need to become fully aware of all biases they hold and how this affects their everyday job.On the other hand, we must become fully aware that differentiating between two equally qualified and skilled candidates solely based on their names or social status is not acceptable in the 21st century! And it is only after we realize this, that we can hope for some actual results and improvements.
Friday, May 22, 2020
Ever since Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis theory, its applicability has been extended beyond therapy to literature. In the interpretation of dreams, Sigmund Freud coins the term the oedipus complex in reference to the greek mythology of Oedipus the king. The application of psychoanalysis to myth is treated by Dowden with scepticism and he states that the only significance of the psychoanalytic approach is in its recognition of how fundamental the images that recur in the myth are (Dowden, 1992, p.23). This essay will argue that DowdenÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment of the theory of psychoanalysis is valid but needs to be supplemented with a more comprehensive view of psychoanalysis and the various arguments for scepticism towards psychoanalysis. DowdenÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment of the theory of psychoanalysis focuses on the application of dream interpretation to myth and itÃ¢â¬â¢s related flaws. He refers to the freudian method of dream analysis as using dreams to Ã¢â¬Å"disclose the hidden o perations of the unconscious mind Ã¢â¬ ¦ [through] symbolism, disposition, or projectionÃ¢â¬ (Dowden, 1992, p.23). In this sense, it is reasonable to extend psychoanalysis to other products of human imagination such as myth. Dowden criticizes this approach to interpreting myth by raising several major problems. Firstly, he speculates that both psychoanalyst and classist tend to be inapt at psychoanalyzing myths. Secondly, he warns against analyzing the characters in the myth as though they are real in flesh. Thirdly, he dismissesShow MoreRelatedSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychoanalysis2367 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages Sigmund Freud created psychoanalysis, a system through which an expert unloads oblivious clashes in light of the free affiliations, dreams and dreams of the patient. Psychoanalytic hypothesis is a strategy for exploring and treating identity issue and is utilized as a part of psychotherapy. Included in this hypothesis is the way to go that things that happen to individuals amid adolescence can add to the way they later capacity as grown-ups (Gay, 1998). Freud s psychodynamic methodology has promptedRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychoanalysis1339 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSigmund Freud Biographic Description of Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856 in Freiberg (currently known as Czech Republic). Freud is best known as the founder of psychoanalysis, which entails a scientific analysis of unpacking unconscious conflicts based on free associations, fantasies, and dreams of the patient. He was among the greatest psychologists of the 20th century, and his legacy lasts up to now. While young (4 years old), his family relocated to Vienna where he lived andRead MoreSigmund Freud s Psychoanalysis Theory2380 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages Contemporaries of Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychoanalysis Theory Kevin Stout Florida Institute of Technology Abstract Sigmund Freud created psychoanalysis, a system through which an expert unloads oblivious clashes in light of the free affiliations, dreams and dreams of the patient. Psychoanalytic hypothesis is a strategy for exploring and treating identity issue and is utilized as a part of psychotherapy. Included in this hypothesis is the way to go that things that happenRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychoanalysis1258 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s grand theory of Psychoanalysis was developed in the 19th century. He especially worked to prove that childhood events had a great and powerful impact on the teenage and adult mind in later years to come. Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 and died in 1939. He had a great desire to find treatment for psychopathology that all began with a great deal of time spent at Theodor MeynertÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychiatric Clinic. His time spent here was what created his desire to help people and find new ways toRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychoanalys is Essay1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theological perspective was termed Psychoanalysis. Freud believed people unconsciously repressed information, and that this hidden information was the cause of their distress. The unconscious is the space in your brain where thoughts, feelings, and desires are tucked away, and cannot be readily drawn upon and available to the conscious mind. Because 99% of this methodology is dealing with the unconscious, Freud believed that success could not be reached by the individual alone, rather theyRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theories About Psychoanalysis And The Unconscious Mind1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPsychology, 5th Block Sigmund Freud s Theories about Psychoanalysis and the Unconscious Mind Sigmund Freud was well known for his theories on psychoanalysis, and it was used to help understand the unconscious mind better. In Freud s lifetime, he grew to be a very influential person of the twentieth century. The western society still uses words that he introduced in his time, some are libido, repression, denial, and neurotic. He was the founding father of the theory of psychoanalysis, which explains humanRead MoreThe Power Of Sigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychoanalysis1440 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe power of Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory Sigmund Freud was a great philosopher who predicted and came up with theories that are widely used in todays society. He is often referred to the father of psychoanalysis as he was one of the first people to analyze the human mind. He separated the human mind into three parts which help further explain the theory of psychoanalysis. The first part is known as the id, it is the part of the mind that deals with instincts. It is the unconscious part of the mindRead MoreHistorical Background Of Sigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychoanalysis774 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHistorical Background Sigmund Freud dedicated the majority of his time on this earth to mainly covering his theory of psychoanalysis. He did not however have a lot of patience from contemporaries who diverged from his psychoanalytic principles. He attempted to keep control over the movement by expelling those who dared to disagree. Carl Jung and Alfred Alder, for example, worked closely with Freud, but each founded his own therapeutic school after repeated disagreements with Freud on theoretical andRead MoreThe Theory Of Psychoanalysis On The Unconscious Phases Of Personality Development1130 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe theory of Psychoanalysis In the early 1800s, Psychologist and researchers were fervent in postulating and hypothesizing. Searching earnestly for answers to the many questions that were prevalent in those days. The theory of Psychoanalysis was one of such theory that was founded. Psychoanalysis emphases on the unconscious phases of personality development. The main tenets of this theory are characterized into four subsections. Firstly, it states that early childhood experiences are important inRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology1283 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSigmund Freud (1856-1939), is a pioneer in the field of psychology in various ways. His dedication to his field helped shape the minds of many nineteen-century contemporary schools of thought. Most notably, FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s work in psychoanalytic theory, according to Tan (2011) earned him the title of, Ã¢â¬Å"father of psychoanalysisÃ¢â¬ (p. 322). Moreover, Tan Taykeyesu (2011) report that FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s genius is not just in psychoanalysis, but also when we Ã¢â¬Å"think Oedipus complex, infantile sexuality, and repressionÃ¢â¬
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Adultery in the Military As citizens of the United States of America we are all governed by a certain set of rules. These laws are set forth by our elected officials. These laws deal with almost all aspects of life including morally wrong actions such as murder and theft. However, these laws do not govern many other moral choices such as adultery. As members of the United States Armed Forces, we are also regulated by an additional set of rules. We must abide by the sanctions of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). Unlike our state laws, the UCMJ does have articles that address the subject of adultery. The UCMJ articles that now pertain to adulterous actions are very strict and limit personal choice. These articlesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The United States Armed Forces is based on the principles oh honor. Ã¢â¬Å"Honor is a strict adherence to the military standards of conductÃ¢â¬ ¦lying, cheating, stealing, and deceit are forms of behavior that will not be toleratedÃ¢â¬ (Benin 32). A dultery is grave action that includes three of these four forms of behavior. It is the epitome of Ã¢â¬Å"breaking a promise,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"deceiving someoneÃ¢â¬ because of the serious commitments made within a marriage (Wasserstrom 192). The breaking of a promise and deception are what make adultery morally wrong (Wasserstrom 192-3). Some opponents of adultery use Ã¢â¬Å"the Principle of UtilityÃ¢â¬ as a basis for their views. Ã¢â¬Å"This principle requires that whenever we have a choice between alternative actions or social policies, we must choose the one that has best overall consequences for everyone concernedÃ¢â¬ (Rachels 97). The opponents of adultery believe that adultery does more damage than good. It does harm to the person being deceived, and in the military, it can Ã¢â¬Å"disrupt moral and functioning in a military unitÃ¢â¬ (Capitol 1). In the adultery case of 1st Lt. Kelly Flinn USAF, the first female B-52 bomber pilot, the functioning of her military unit was definitely disrupted. Lt. Flinn lied Ã¢â¬Å"about an affair she had with the husband of an enlisted womanÃ¢â¬ (Capitol 2). Ã¢â¬Å"Lt. Flinn was charged with fraternization, disobeying a direct order, lying, conduct unbecoming to an officer, and she was charged with adultery. If you add up all the charges, theyShow MoreRelatedThe Mongols : Mongols Barbarians783 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbarbarians. The Mongols had a strong dominating military that was almost always successful, they contributed to many of the ideas that are still around today, and made a very stern set of laws that kept their community civilized which is why I believe that the Mongols were not barbarians. Although the Mongols were sometimes very brutal they were not barbarians. The Mongols were able to come up with very complex battle tactics like no other military in their era. In document three Ã¢â¬Å" History ofRead MoreReputation Of Men And Women In Othello1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThroughout history, the reputation of men and women has been defined by society in a different matter. During the 16th century, men were viewed accordingly to their military position and societal duties. On the other hand, a womans character was defined by their sexual history, commitment of adultery and servitude to their husband. Such a contrast in perceptions did not only alter the way in which women were regarded by their husbands and society, but it influenced the manner in which men definedRead MoreOthello as a Tragedy of Character1649 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesplots (whoÃ¢â¬â¢s the most evil character of the history) Othello canÃ¢â¬â¢t control himself and his jealousy that he radically changes through the end. This change stems from his being deceived by Iago (evil incarnate) and leading him to accuse his wife for adultery. At this point, as a characteristic of the classical tragedy, Othello turns out to be a Ã¢â¬Å"tragically divided characterÃ¢â¬ : HeÃ¢â¬â¢s divided between the choices of killing his innocent wife as a punishment or stop believing in Iag oÃ¢â¬â¢s deceptions, tricks andRead More Augustus and how he changed the roman Empire Essay1071 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestotal control of Rome and tried to destroy each other. Civil war was the the only way to solve problems in politics. Consequently, the power of the military became strong. Control of Romes armies changed from the government to the generals because the soldiers began to listen to their generals rather than to the Government. On dismissal from military service, the soldiers had no farms to return to, and they depended entirely on whatever land and money their generals could provide since the governmentRead MoreThe US Militarys Sexual-Assault Problem Essay1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the past, military news typically evolved tragic training incidents or deaths during overseas combat. However, over the last several years many incidents involving military personnel and sexual assault have made headlines across the United States. Military women and men have brought to l ight the lack of justice for victims of sexual assault, and the prevalence of such attacks. Questions arise as to why victims do not report incidents or seek assistance when they are physically or sexually assaultedRead MoreRoman Cinema And The Roman Empire951 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages and gladiator fights became the new entertainment for roman citizens. Gladiatorial presentations were different from theatrical entertainment and chariot races. The purposes of gladiator presentations were to exemplify the military ethic as well as to emphasize the military bias of RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s world dominance (Slater 72). The citizens began celebrating and accepting such barbarianism that gladiator fights became a grotesque form of entertainment. There was wild beast that were exhibited and killed toRead MoreAugustus Essay1148 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesextended to laws regarding adultery, unchastity, and bribery. The Lex Julia di maritis ordinibus prohibited celibacy and childless marriages. It was made c ompulsory for roman citizens to get married. Special benefits, such as tax breaks, were established for couples with children in order to encourage procreation. Thus, this law had the Ã¢â¬Å"added advantage of replacing the decimated Roman population that was lost during the numerous civil warsÃ¢â¬ . To handle the issue of adultery, which the Romans thenRead MoreWomen s Role And Status Of Women1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespotential for upward mobility. In the legal context, during the rule of the military dictator General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, various discriminatory laws against women were introduces during his Islamization process in the late 70Ã¢â¬â¢s and 80Ã¢â¬â¢s. For example, when the Hudood Ordinance was established in 1979, it equated rape with adultery. In the case of maximum punishment, testimonies by women were not admitted to prove rape or adultery. Instead the law required that the evidence should be provided by at leastRead MoreScarlet Letter And The Other Wes Moore Analysis989 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Other Wes Moore, by Wes Moore, both stories exhibit that each choice a person makes has a consequence, good or bad. Each book is based around choices; The Scarlet Letter narrates the life of a young puritan woman, Hester Prynne, who committed adultery with man who hidden in plain sight for many years. While the people of her community tried to persuade her to reveal who the father is of her new child, she refused, determined to keep his secret hidden and his reputation clean. Since Hester committedRead MoreCharged with sex-related crimes involving 10 female Airmen, 4 counts of adultery, and several other900 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCharged with sex-related crimes involving 10 female Airmen, 4 counts of adultery, and several other charges such as indecent conduct, misuse of position, and maltreatment of enlisted Airmen, former Command Chief of Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) CMSgt William Gurney failed to ethically lead his Airmen. By his own admission, he was Ã¢â¬Å"caught in a cycle of sin and failed as an Airman and a husband.Ã¢â¬ 1 In this essay, I will discuss the ChiefÃ¢â¬â¢s specialty an d some of the positions he held as a Printer
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
To cite this article: Magnesio, S. B. Davis. We will write a custom essay sample on A Teacher Fosters Social Competence with Cooperative Learning or any similar topic only for you Order Now A Teacher Fosters Social Competence With Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing. Kagan Online Magazine, Fall/Winter 2010. www. KaganOnline. com Miss Mag, do we have to work in groups? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Miss Mag, I canÃ¢â¬â¢t work with him. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Miss Mag, can I work alone? Ã¢â¬ Dodgeball tacticsÃ¢â¬âduck, dart, and fleeÃ¢â¬âseemed to be the game plan in my classroom whenever I wanted my students to work in groups. Ã¢â¬Å"Just try to work together! Ã¢â¬ I would say again and again. As a new teacher, I was shocked to find that most of my students didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to work in a group. Many of my 4th-grade students had been together since kindergarten, yet they interacted as strangers. They struggled to keep their heads above water when it came to social skills and group work. And I was drowning, treading back and forth, student to student, trying to keep up. Week after week, I found myself spending more time talking about being team players and working together than I spent teaching multiplication strategies and writing good leads. My soapbox was becoming old and worn, and I was overwhelmed and tired. Week after week, I found myself spending more time talking about being team players and working together than I spent teachingmultiplication strategies and writing good leads. My soapbox was becoming old and worn, and I was overwhelmed and tired. Many teachers experience challenges when they place students in a group and expect them to cooperate. As Johnson and Johnson (1990) point out, Ã¢â¬Å"Simply placing students in groups and telling them to work together does not, in and of itself, produce cooperationÃ¢â¬ (p. 29). Trying to get students to work cooperatively was one of the most frustrating aspects of my first two years of teaching. The easy solution would have been to throw my hands up and say, Ã¢â¬Å"These kids just canÃ¢â¬â¢t work together! Ã¢â¬ I could have given in and assigned individual projects and allowed the students to work alone and be done with it. However, I was learning about cooperative learning structures (Kagan Kagan, 2009) in a graduate mentoring and induction program for beginning teachers, and I wondered if these structures would work in my classroom. This wondering became the focus of a classroom-based research project I conducted as part of the graduate program. I hoped this study would help my students build positive social skills and become successful working together. In particular, I wanted them to listen to each other, to solve problems collaboratively, and to teach one another. I focused my inquiry project on the following questions: 1) How does a structural approach to cooperative learning influence the social skills of 4th graders? 2) How do cooperative learning structures influence awareness of othersÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings and encourage appropriate choices in social settings? , and 3) What influence do student reflections have on social interactions? Related Literature Cooperative learning has been defined as groups of students working together to complete a common task (Johnson, Johnson, Holubec, 2002). Numerous studies have measured the success of cooperative learning as an instructional method regarding social skills development and student achievement across all levels, from primary grades through college. The general consensus is that cooperative learning can, and usually does, result in positive student outcomes in all areas (Johnson Johnson, 1990; Kagan Kagan, 2009; Marzano, Pickering, Pollock, 2001; Slavin, 1996). Social interaction theory (Piaget, 1970; Vygotsky, 1978) and motivational theory (Maslow, 1954) both help explain the effectiveness of cooperative learning. Social interaction theory views learning as a social activity in which people learn by listening and talking to others. As Kauchak and Eggen (2007) explain: Piaget views this social interaction as a catalyst for students to reevaluate their own beliefs about the world; Vygotsky sees social interaction as a vehicle for more knowledgeable people to share their expertise with others. In both instances, students learn by listening and talking. (pp. 305-306) In his theory of motivation, Maslow (1954) described a hierarchy of needs that moves from lower needs (e. g. , hunger, safety) to higher needs (e. g. , esteem, belonging). He argued that people strive to meet their lower needs before attempting to meet the higher needs. In Kagan Cooperative Learning, Kagan and Kagan (2009) explain the relationship between MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation theory and the effectiveness of cooperative learning: If students do not feel safe and included, their energy is directed to meeting those deficiency needs and is not free to meet the need to know and understand. . . . When we put cooperative learning in place the need for safety is satisfied through social norms (no put downs; disagreeing politely). The need for inclusion is satisfied through teambuilding and classbuilding. . . . With the needs of safety and security satisfied, the students have more free energy to move up the hierarchy, striving for esteem and knowledge. (p. 4. 13) Moreover, in many classrooms, the majority of interactions are teacher-student, which can create a competitive environment as students vie for the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s approval. Cooperative learning helps balance this environment by encouraging students to work together to achieve learning goals. As Kagan and Kagan (2009) point out, Ã¢â¬Å"We live in an interdependent world in which, somewhat paradoxically, the ability to compete depends on the ability to cooperateÃ¢â¬ (p. 1. 18). Several prominent researchers have developed various models of cooperative learning. For example, two brothers, David and Roger Johnson, created the Learning Together and Student Controversy models (Johnson, Johnson, Holubec, 2002); Robert Slavin (1996) developed the Jigsaw II and Student Teams-Achievement Division models; and Spencer Kagan (1994) developed the Structural Approach to cooperative learning. Although different, these models each contain four defining elements of effective group interactions: 1) positive interdependence, 2) individual accountability, 3) equal participation, and 4) simultaneous interaction. Johnson, Johnson, and Holubec (2002) include a fifth elementÃ¢â¬âgroup processing. Numerous practitioner studies have examined the impact of cooperative learning on student achievement and social skills development. For example, Nesbit and Rogers (1997) describe the benefits of integrating cooperative learning with science, reading, and writing instruction. Using several of the different cooperative learning models, the authors found that each method was successful in helping students work together in science to solve problems while using the tools of reading and writing. They suggested, however, that teachers begin with the Kagan structural approach before attempting the more complicated models of cooperative learning. Similarly, Muth (1997) found that cooperative learning could be used effectively during mathematics instruction to increase student comprehension of word problems, as well as to help them develop problem-solving skills. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Using Cooperative Learning To Improve Reading and Writing in Mathematical Problem Solving,Ã¢â¬ she provides examples of how to implement cooperative learning in the mathematics classroom. Based on her experiences, Muth concludes that cooperative learning can improve reading and writing, as well as interpersonal skills, during mathematics instruction, particularly when students are working on problem-solving strategies. Bromley and Modlo (1997) found that cooperative learning helped maximize student learning in language arts instruction. A descriptive study of four teachers who implemented the Kagan Structural Approach during reading and writing instruction demonstrated the following benefits: 1) higher level thinking, 2) better communication between students, and 3) positive social relations. More recently, Law (2008) conducted two separate experimental studies on the effects of cooperative learning on 2nd-gradersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation and comprehension of text. In the first study, students in cooperative learning groups (n = 160) were compared with their counterparts in traditional instruction groups (n = 107). The results showed a significant difference between the two groups, with more favorable perceptions of teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ instructional practices and better reading comprehension in the experimental groups than in the control groups. In the second study, 51 second-graders participated in the instructional intervention program (cooperative learning). The results showed that studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ positive cooperative behavior and attitudes were related to their motivation and reading comprehension. When students perceived that their peers were willing to help each other and were committed to the group, they tended to be more motivated and performed better in reading comprehension. Numerous school-based studies in various grade levels have investigated the effects of using the Kagan Structural Approach to cooperative learning (Cline, 2007; Dotson, 2001; Howard, 2006; Murie, 2004). Consistently, these studies have shown positive effects on student achievement, attitudes, and engagement. Cline, for example, investigated the effects of using Kagan cooperative learning structures in her 5th-grade classes. During the 16-week study, she implemented the structures (e. g. , RallyCoach, RoundTable) during guided practice in one math class; in a comparison group, she used a more traditional method of instruction (e. g. , students working alone). Data collected from pre- and posttests revealed that the experimental group outperformed the comparison group on all measures of math achievement. Several studies have focused on the role of the teacher in implementing cooperative learning (Ding, Li, Piccolo, Kulm, 2007; Leonard McElroy, 2000; Lotan, 2003; Siegel, 2005). These studies concluded that the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions about how group tasks are set up, as well as his or her interventions during the group processing, are crucial to the success of cooperative learning in the classroom. In summary, findings from numerous studies demonstrate the positive outcomes of using cooperative learning throughout the curriculum. These benefits include improved academic performance, as well as enhanced social skills development. How to cite A Teacher Fosters Social Competence with Cooperative Learning, Papers
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
The financial crisis of 2008 affected the entire globe. One of the major outcomes of the crisis was the increase of public debt in many countries. Such potent economies as Germany, the UK, France, etc. had to face significant financial issues.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The recent European sovereign debt crisis, with particular focus on the Greek case specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At the same time such peripheral economies as Ireland, Greece, Spain, Portugal, etc. were in danger of complete collapse. Thus, in the period of 2007-2010 gross debt/GDP ratio Ã¢â¬Å"increased by 62.3% in Ireland, by 38.2% in Greece and by 36.3% in SpainÃ¢â¬ which is the largest increase (Kouretas Vlamis, 2010, p. 392). Admittedly, many countries face the same problem, i.e. increase of General Government Debt (see Fig. 1). However, it is clear that Greece had the most severe crisis (Young Semmler, 2011). Fig.1. Percentages of General Government Debt in Some Countries of Eurozone. It is necessary to note that Greece has suffered a great economic turmoil. The government had to implement various austerity measures. However, some of these measures have proved to be ineffective. It is possible to state that Greece should undergo a number of political, economic and social changes to overcome the aftermaths of the crisis and make sure that such a devastating crisis will never occur.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Interestingly, Greece was one of the fastest growing economies in the entire Eurozone in the early 2000s (Kouretas Vlamis, 2010). However, mismanagement of financial flows led to the increase of private debt. The government tried to decrease private debt with the help of loans, which led to increased public debt. Combined with severe global financial crisis increased public debt became on e of the major reasons of the economic crisis in Greece. Thus, in the late 2009 analysts expressed concerns about a sovereign debt crisis which led to the crisis of confidence (De Santis, 2012). In its turn, it affected other weak economies in the Eurozone. In 2010 the situation worsened and the International Monetary Fund provided Ã¢â ¬110 billion bailout to the country. In 2011 the IMF agreed to provide another bailout of Ã¢â ¬130 billion. However, the Greek government had to undertake certain measures. There were lots of talks about the second bailout as Greeks were against austerity measures suggested by the Eurozone leaders. There were a lot of riots in the country. The election which took place in June 2012 was regarded as decisive as the new government was to decide whether to use the plan offered by other European countries. However, the election proved to be quite unsuccessful as the new government failed to form the necessary coalition to develop a plan to follow. Now there are increasing talks about the so-called Ã¢â¬ËGrexitÃ¢â¬â¢. It is possible to define several reasons for the failure of the measures undertaken. In the first place, Greek governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s activities were erroneous. Thus, increased public expenditures caused the crisis.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The recent European sovereign debt crisis, with particular focus on the Greek case specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Greek government should have reconsidered the amount of these expenditures. Thus, according to Eurostat (2012) while Eurozone leaders cut their public expenditures during the most difficult periods in 2008-2009, Greece steadily increased these expenditures (see Fig.2). Fig. 2. Public Expenditures of Some Eurozone Countries on Labor Market Policies (% of GDP). Secondly, it took too much time for European countries to understand that the sovereign debt crisis in Greece was to be handled at once (Kouretas Vlamis, 2010). However, the Eurozone leaders hesitated. A lot of discussions were held and countries of Eurozone failed to foresee possible outcomes of such a severe crisis in Greece. Notably, Kouretas Vlamis (2010) point out that it was quite difficult to estimate the real conditions of the Greek economy as Greek governments often provided wrong data. Even when countries of Eurozone agreed that Greece needed help, they could not come to a single decision on what exactly could be done (Kouretas Vlamis, 2010). The researchers also note that even when the financial aid was provided, it could not be the necessary solution as European countries which had common currency (euro), had different monetary policies including tax policies, wage policies, budgetary policies, etc. (Kouretas Vlamis, 2010).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also important to note that cultural peculiarities did play an important role in escalation of the financial crisis in the country. Thus, Young and Semmler (2011) state that when Eurozone countries faced the crisis, many of them chose severe austerity measures. For instance, Germany cut public expenditures considerably (see Fig.2). However, the Greek government was not capable of implementing austerity measures. Greeks were also uneager to comply with austerity measures offered by the Eurozone leaders (Young Semmler, 2011). There were lots of riots. People protested against rising taxes, low wages, low pensions, etc. Interestingly, according to Eurostat (2012) the unemployment rate in Greece was not very high compared to other countries (even compared to the Eurozone leaders) (see Fig. 3). However, Greeks insist that austerity measures are far too severe. Fig. 3. Unemployment Rate in Some Eurozone Countries. The Greek government was in a very difficult position as the Eurozo ne leaders demanded implementation of austerity measures while Greeks demanded governmental support. Many people were waiting for the election which took place in June 2012 (Nadeau, 2012). Democratic forces won, but the election has not led to any outcomes as the new forces failed to form a coalition. Therefore, the Greek government is not ready to choose a path. Now many European analysts consider the so-called Grexit. Some claim that Greece should leave Eurozone as this will positively affect Eurozone as well as Greece (Buiter, 2012). Of course, there are people who think Grexit will negatively affect economies of other Eurozone countries. Supporters of the Grexit claim that this is the only way out, and it is rather inevitable. Admittedly, Greeks have already obtained certain financial support from Eurozone countries. However, Greeks are still reluctant to comply with the rules offered by the Eurozone leaders. This inability to follow the rules makes any other help meaningless or even harmful for economies of other countries. It is clear that the IMF or European Bank cannot afford allocating funds in such a thoughtless way. The Eurozone leaders should understand that Greece will follow the plan which can help the country overcome the crisis. Basically, the Eurozone leaders want Greece to follow their own ways, which have been quite successful. For instance, austerity measures have saved Germany from severe financial constraints and made the country one of the Eurozone leaders. Nonetheless, as has been mentioned above, Greece is too different. Greeks are eager to remain in Eurozone. They want to receive financial help. However, they are not ready for the austerity measures offered. They are still protesting and expressing their discontent with these measures. It is necessary to note that recent elections have confirmed that Greeks will not comply with the rules set by Eurozone leaders. Democratic forces have won. More so, the present leaders claim they are r eady to lead the country using Eurozone leadersÃ¢â¬â¢ paths. Therefore, Antonis Samaras, Greek Prime Minister, states that Greece should accept the rules offered as this will help the country overcome the crisis (Nadeau, 2012). However, the Prime Minister has failed to form a coalition so far. This can only mean that the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s political forces cannot come to a single solution. Of course, it is possible to try to form coalition, but now Greece has the only way out. The country needs one more election. However, this time it is essential to make people reconsider their future in the Eurozone. Political forces should have particular programs to follow. Greeks should understand that their exit from the Eurozone is inevitable. As has been mentioned above, the single European currency is not backed up by a single monetary policy (wage policy, tax policy, etc.). Euro has proved to be inappropriate for Greece. The country should return to drachma which can positively affect the development of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. First, it will enable Greeks to work out their own way out. They will not need to comply with the plan which is unacceptable for them due to various political, social and cultural peculiarities. Thus, Greek economy will be separated, so-to-speak. This separation will enable the economy to become a somewhat closed system. Greeks should not rely on other countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ assistance any more. However, it is important to note that Greece should not leave the EU. Greece should remain a part of various European organizations and incentives. Though, there should be a particular distinction between cooperation and complete reliance on external assistance. Basically, Greece should start from scratch. The first step is to hold another election. People as well as politicians should understand that it is time to cooperate. It is time to forget about any ambitions or personal goals. The country is to be led by a strong political force. The government should not be afraid of launching austerity measures. Of course, these measures should be appropriate. It is also necessary to reintroduce drachma. This Greek currency will help the country become competitive on the global scale. Though, some claim it can be associated with certain risks, the reintroduction of the national currency is inevitable. Of course, this process should be controlled by the government. Reintroduction of drachma should be implemented in several stages. Greek economy should be prepared for the change. In fact, it is necessary to note that all the countries of the EU should turn back to their national currencies as this will lead to financial balance. As has been mentioned above, the countries have different financial policies. It is but natural currencies should also be different. Perhaps, in future the EU countries will manage to work out a common policy (wage, taxes, budgeting policies). This will enable the countries to introduce a common currency. In fact, common currency should be one of the final stages of integration. In case of the Eurozone, introduction of euro was quite a hasty decision. However, there are also positive outcomes as now it is clear that the EU is not ready for a common currency. As far as Greece is concerned, the country should also pay special attention to private debt. The Greek government should not try to decrease private debt at the expense of public debt as it will inevitably lead to another sovereign debt crisis. It is important to note that private debt in Greece can be handled without loans. Fig. 4. Private Debt in % of GDP. Thus, according to Eurostat (2012) other Eurozone countries (even Eurozone leaders) have higher rates of private debt (see Fig. 4). Kouretas and Vlamis (2010) note that private debt was increasing in the period of the economic boom. Therefore, this process is inevitable and it should be handled accordingly. On balance, it is possible to note that the recent European sovereign debt crisis in Greece was caused by a number of reasons. On the one hand, the country failed to cope with the increase of private debt. The government tried to solve the problem with the help of loans from other Eurozone countries. On the other hand, Eurozone countries failed to address the urgent issues which contributed to escalation of the crisis in Greece. Finally, even financial support of the IMF and European bank did not work for the country as Greece was unable to accept the plan offered by Eurozone leaders. Of course, there are specific measures which can be undertaken to help the country overcome the crisis. Firstly, the country should have another election. Secondly, the country should reintroduce drachma. Finally, Greece should not try to handle increase of private debt at the expense of public debt. It is also important to note that the two latter measures can help other Eurozone countries overcome the aftermaths of the financial crisis. Reference List Buiter, W., (2012). Ra ce to save euro will follow Ã¢â¬ËGrexitÃ¢â¬â¢. Financial Times. Web. De Santis, R. A., (2012). The euro area sovereign debt crisis: Safe haven, credit rating agencies and the spread of the fever from Greece, Ireland and Portugal. Working Papers Series. Web. Eurostat, (2012). Statistics. Web. Kouretas, G. P. Vlamis, P., (2010). The Greek crisis: Causes and implications. Panoeconomicus, 4(1), 391-404. Nadeau, B. L., (2012). No Ã¢â¬ËGrexitÃ¢â¬â¢ after Antonis Samaras and new democracy win Greek Election. The Daily Beast. Web. Young, B. Semmler, W., (2011). The European sovereign debt crisis: Is Germany to blame? German Politics and Society, 97Ã (29), 1-24. This essay on The recent European sovereign debt crisis, with particular focus on the Greek case was written and submitted by user Alaina Hatfield to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.