Friday, May 22, 2020
Ever since Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis theory, its applicability has been extended beyond therapy to literature. In the interpretation of dreams, Sigmund Freud coins the term the oedipus complex in reference to the greek mythology of Oedipus the king. The application of psychoanalysis to myth is treated by Dowden with scepticism and he states that the only significance of the psychoanalytic approach is in its recognition of how fundamental the images that recur in the myth are (Dowden, 1992, p.23). This essay will argue that DowdenÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment of the theory of psychoanalysis is valid but needs to be supplemented with a more comprehensive view of psychoanalysis and the various arguments for scepticism towards psychoanalysis. DowdenÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment of the theory of psychoanalysis focuses on the application of dream interpretation to myth and itÃ¢â¬â¢s related flaws. He refers to the freudian method of dream analysis as using dreams to Ã¢â¬Å"disclose the hidden o perations of the unconscious mind Ã¢â¬ ¦ [through] symbolism, disposition, or projectionÃ¢â¬ (Dowden, 1992, p.23). In this sense, it is reasonable to extend psychoanalysis to other products of human imagination such as myth. Dowden criticizes this approach to interpreting myth by raising several major problems. Firstly, he speculates that both psychoanalyst and classist tend to be inapt at psychoanalyzing myths. Secondly, he warns against analyzing the characters in the myth as though they are real in flesh. Thirdly, he dismissesShow MoreRelatedSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychoanalysis2367 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages Sigmund Freud created psychoanalysis, a system through which an expert unloads oblivious clashes in light of the free affiliations, dreams and dreams of the patient. Psychoanalytic hypothesis is a strategy for exploring and treating identity issue and is utilized as a part of psychotherapy. Included in this hypothesis is the way to go that things that happen to individuals amid adolescence can add to the way they later capacity as grown-ups (Gay, 1998). Freud s psychodynamic methodology has promptedRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychoanalysis1339 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSigmund Freud Biographic Description of Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856 in Freiberg (currently known as Czech Republic). Freud is best known as the founder of psychoanalysis, which entails a scientific analysis of unpacking unconscious conflicts based on free associations, fantasies, and dreams of the patient. He was among the greatest psychologists of the 20th century, and his legacy lasts up to now. While young (4 years old), his family relocated to Vienna where he lived andRead MoreSigmund Freud s Psychoanalysis Theory2380 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages Contemporaries of Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychoanalysis Theory Kevin Stout Florida Institute of Technology Abstract Sigmund Freud created psychoanalysis, a system through which an expert unloads oblivious clashes in light of the free affiliations, dreams and dreams of the patient. Psychoanalytic hypothesis is a strategy for exploring and treating identity issue and is utilized as a part of psychotherapy. Included in this hypothesis is the way to go that things that happenRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychoanalysis1258 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s grand theory of Psychoanalysis was developed in the 19th century. He especially worked to prove that childhood events had a great and powerful impact on the teenage and adult mind in later years to come. Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 and died in 1939. He had a great desire to find treatment for psychopathology that all began with a great deal of time spent at Theodor MeynertÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychiatric Clinic. His time spent here was what created his desire to help people and find new ways toRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychoanalys is Essay1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theological perspective was termed Psychoanalysis. Freud believed people unconsciously repressed information, and that this hidden information was the cause of their distress. The unconscious is the space in your brain where thoughts, feelings, and desires are tucked away, and cannot be readily drawn upon and available to the conscious mind. Because 99% of this methodology is dealing with the unconscious, Freud believed that success could not be reached by the individual alone, rather theyRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theories About Psychoanalysis And The Unconscious Mind1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPsychology, 5th Block Sigmund Freud s Theories about Psychoanalysis and the Unconscious Mind Sigmund Freud was well known for his theories on psychoanalysis, and it was used to help understand the unconscious mind better. In Freud s lifetime, he grew to be a very influential person of the twentieth century. The western society still uses words that he introduced in his time, some are libido, repression, denial, and neurotic. He was the founding father of the theory of psychoanalysis, which explains humanRead MoreThe Power Of Sigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychoanalysis1440 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe power of Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory Sigmund Freud was a great philosopher who predicted and came up with theories that are widely used in todays society. He is often referred to the father of psychoanalysis as he was one of the first people to analyze the human mind. He separated the human mind into three parts which help further explain the theory of psychoanalysis. The first part is known as the id, it is the part of the mind that deals with instincts. It is the unconscious part of the mindRead MoreHistorical Background Of Sigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychoanalysis774 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHistorical Background Sigmund Freud dedicated the majority of his time on this earth to mainly covering his theory of psychoanalysis. He did not however have a lot of patience from contemporaries who diverged from his psychoanalytic principles. He attempted to keep control over the movement by expelling those who dared to disagree. Carl Jung and Alfred Alder, for example, worked closely with Freud, but each founded his own therapeutic school after repeated disagreements with Freud on theoretical andRead MoreThe Theory Of Psychoanalysis On The Unconscious Phases Of Personality Development1130 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe theory of Psychoanalysis In the early 1800s, Psychologist and researchers were fervent in postulating and hypothesizing. Searching earnestly for answers to the many questions that were prevalent in those days. The theory of Psychoanalysis was one of such theory that was founded. Psychoanalysis emphases on the unconscious phases of personality development. The main tenets of this theory are characterized into four subsections. Firstly, it states that early childhood experiences are important inRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology1283 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSigmund Freud (1856-1939), is a pioneer in the field of psychology in various ways. His dedication to his field helped shape the minds of many nineteen-century contemporary schools of thought. Most notably, FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s work in psychoanalytic theory, according to Tan (2011) earned him the title of, Ã¢â¬Å"father of psychoanalysisÃ¢â¬ (p. 322). Moreover, Tan Taykeyesu (2011) report that FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s genius is not just in psychoanalysis, but also when we Ã¢â¬Å"think Oedipus complex, infantile sexuality, and repressionÃ¢â¬
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Adultery in the Military As citizens of the United States of America we are all governed by a certain set of rules. These laws are set forth by our elected officials. These laws deal with almost all aspects of life including morally wrong actions such as murder and theft. However, these laws do not govern many other moral choices such as adultery. As members of the United States Armed Forces, we are also regulated by an additional set of rules. We must abide by the sanctions of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). Unlike our state laws, the UCMJ does have articles that address the subject of adultery. The UCMJ articles that now pertain to adulterous actions are very strict and limit personal choice. These articlesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The United States Armed Forces is based on the principles oh honor. Ã¢â¬Å"Honor is a strict adherence to the military standards of conductÃ¢â¬ ¦lying, cheating, stealing, and deceit are forms of behavior that will not be toleratedÃ¢â¬ (Benin 32). A dultery is grave action that includes three of these four forms of behavior. It is the epitome of Ã¢â¬Å"breaking a promise,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"deceiving someoneÃ¢â¬ because of the serious commitments made within a marriage (Wasserstrom 192). The breaking of a promise and deception are what make adultery morally wrong (Wasserstrom 192-3). Some opponents of adultery use Ã¢â¬Å"the Principle of UtilityÃ¢â¬ as a basis for their views. Ã¢â¬Å"This principle requires that whenever we have a choice between alternative actions or social policies, we must choose the one that has best overall consequences for everyone concernedÃ¢â¬ (Rachels 97). The opponents of adultery believe that adultery does more damage than good. It does harm to the person being deceived, and in the military, it can Ã¢â¬Å"disrupt moral and functioning in a military unitÃ¢â¬ (Capitol 1). In the adultery case of 1st Lt. Kelly Flinn USAF, the first female B-52 bomber pilot, the functioning of her military unit was definitely disrupted. Lt. Flinn lied Ã¢â¬Å"about an affair she had with the husband of an enlisted womanÃ¢â¬ (Capitol 2). Ã¢â¬Å"Lt. Flinn was charged with fraternization, disobeying a direct order, lying, conduct unbecoming to an officer, and she was charged with adultery. If you add up all the charges, theyShow MoreRelatedThe Mongols : Mongols Barbarians783 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbarbarians. The Mongols had a strong dominating military that was almost always successful, they contributed to many of the ideas that are still around today, and made a very stern set of laws that kept their community civilized which is why I believe that the Mongols were not barbarians. Although the Mongols were sometimes very brutal they were not barbarians. The Mongols were able to come up with very complex battle tactics like no other military in their era. In document three Ã¢â¬Å" History ofRead MoreReputation Of Men And Women In Othello1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThroughout history, the reputation of men and women has been defined by society in a different matter. During the 16th century, men were viewed accordingly to their military position and societal duties. On the other hand, a womans character was defined by their sexual history, commitment of adultery and servitude to their husband. Such a contrast in perceptions did not only alter the way in which women were regarded by their husbands and society, but it influenced the manner in which men definedRead MoreOthello as a Tragedy of Character1649 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesplots (whoÃ¢â¬â¢s the most evil character of the history) Othello canÃ¢â¬â¢t control himself and his jealousy that he radically changes through the end. This change stems from his being deceived by Iago (evil incarnate) and leading him to accuse his wife for adultery. At this point, as a characteristic of the classical tragedy, Othello turns out to be a Ã¢â¬Å"tragically divided characterÃ¢â¬ : HeÃ¢â¬â¢s divided between the choices of killing his innocent wife as a punishment or stop believing in Iag oÃ¢â¬â¢s deceptions, tricks andRead More Augustus and how he changed the roman Empire Essay1071 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestotal control of Rome and tried to destroy each other. Civil war was the the only way to solve problems in politics. Consequently, the power of the military became strong. Control of Romes armies changed from the government to the generals because the soldiers began to listen to their generals rather than to the Government. On dismissal from military service, the soldiers had no farms to return to, and they depended entirely on whatever land and money their generals could provide since the governmentRead MoreThe US Militarys Sexual-Assault Problem Essay1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the past, military news typically evolved tragic training incidents or deaths during overseas combat. However, over the last several years many incidents involving military personnel and sexual assault have made headlines across the United States. Military women and men have brought to l ight the lack of justice for victims of sexual assault, and the prevalence of such attacks. Questions arise as to why victims do not report incidents or seek assistance when they are physically or sexually assaultedRead MoreRoman Cinema And The Roman Empire951 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages and gladiator fights became the new entertainment for roman citizens. Gladiatorial presentations were different from theatrical entertainment and chariot races. The purposes of gladiator presentations were to exemplify the military ethic as well as to emphasize the military bias of RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s world dominance (Slater 72). The citizens began celebrating and accepting such barbarianism that gladiator fights became a grotesque form of entertainment. There was wild beast that were exhibited and killed toRead MoreAugustus Essay1148 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesextended to laws regarding adultery, unchastity, and bribery. The Lex Julia di maritis ordinibus prohibited celibacy and childless marriages. It was made c ompulsory for roman citizens to get married. Special benefits, such as tax breaks, were established for couples with children in order to encourage procreation. Thus, this law had the Ã¢â¬Å"added advantage of replacing the decimated Roman population that was lost during the numerous civil warsÃ¢â¬ . To handle the issue of adultery, which the Romans thenRead MoreWomen s Role And Status Of Women1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespotential for upward mobility. In the legal context, during the rule of the military dictator General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, various discriminatory laws against women were introduces during his Islamization process in the late 70Ã¢â¬â¢s and 80Ã¢â¬â¢s. For example, when the Hudood Ordinance was established in 1979, it equated rape with adultery. In the case of maximum punishment, testimonies by women were not admitted to prove rape or adultery. Instead the law required that the evidence should be provided by at leastRead MoreScarlet Letter And The Other Wes Moore Analysis989 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Other Wes Moore, by Wes Moore, both stories exhibit that each choice a person makes has a consequence, good or bad. Each book is based around choices; The Scarlet Letter narrates the life of a young puritan woman, Hester Prynne, who committed adultery with man who hidden in plain sight for many years. While the people of her community tried to persuade her to reveal who the father is of her new child, she refused, determined to keep his secret hidden and his reputation clean. Since Hester committedRead MoreCharged with sex-related crimes involving 10 female Airmen, 4 counts of adultery, and several other900 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCharged with sex-related crimes involving 10 female Airmen, 4 counts of adultery, and several other charges such as indecent conduct, misuse of position, and maltreatment of enlisted Airmen, former Command Chief of Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) CMSgt William Gurney failed to ethically lead his Airmen. By his own admission, he was Ã¢â¬Å"caught in a cycle of sin and failed as an Airman and a husband.Ã¢â¬ 1 In this essay, I will discuss the ChiefÃ¢â¬â¢s specialty an d some of the positions he held as a Printer
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
To cite this article: Magnesio, S. B. Davis. We will write a custom essay sample on A Teacher Fosters Social Competence with Cooperative Learning or any similar topic only for you Order Now A Teacher Fosters Social Competence With Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing. Kagan Online Magazine, Fall/Winter 2010. www. KaganOnline. com Miss Mag, do we have to work in groups? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Miss Mag, I canÃ¢â¬â¢t work with him. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Miss Mag, can I work alone? Ã¢â¬ Dodgeball tacticsÃ¢â¬âduck, dart, and fleeÃ¢â¬âseemed to be the game plan in my classroom whenever I wanted my students to work in groups. Ã¢â¬Å"Just try to work together! Ã¢â¬ I would say again and again. As a new teacher, I was shocked to find that most of my students didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to work in a group. Many of my 4th-grade students had been together since kindergarten, yet they interacted as strangers. They struggled to keep their heads above water when it came to social skills and group work. And I was drowning, treading back and forth, student to student, trying to keep up. Week after week, I found myself spending more time talking about being team players and working together than I spent teaching multiplication strategies and writing good leads. My soapbox was becoming old and worn, and I was overwhelmed and tired. Week after week, I found myself spending more time talking about being team players and working together than I spent teachingmultiplication strategies and writing good leads. My soapbox was becoming old and worn, and I was overwhelmed and tired. Many teachers experience challenges when they place students in a group and expect them to cooperate. As Johnson and Johnson (1990) point out, Ã¢â¬Å"Simply placing students in groups and telling them to work together does not, in and of itself, produce cooperationÃ¢â¬ (p. 29). Trying to get students to work cooperatively was one of the most frustrating aspects of my first two years of teaching. The easy solution would have been to throw my hands up and say, Ã¢â¬Å"These kids just canÃ¢â¬â¢t work together! Ã¢â¬ I could have given in and assigned individual projects and allowed the students to work alone and be done with it. However, I was learning about cooperative learning structures (Kagan Kagan, 2009) in a graduate mentoring and induction program for beginning teachers, and I wondered if these structures would work in my classroom. This wondering became the focus of a classroom-based research project I conducted as part of the graduate program. I hoped this study would help my students build positive social skills and become successful working together. In particular, I wanted them to listen to each other, to solve problems collaboratively, and to teach one another. I focused my inquiry project on the following questions: 1) How does a structural approach to cooperative learning influence the social skills of 4th graders? 2) How do cooperative learning structures influence awareness of othersÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings and encourage appropriate choices in social settings? , and 3) What influence do student reflections have on social interactions? Related Literature Cooperative learning has been defined as groups of students working together to complete a common task (Johnson, Johnson, Holubec, 2002). Numerous studies have measured the success of cooperative learning as an instructional method regarding social skills development and student achievement across all levels, from primary grades through college. The general consensus is that cooperative learning can, and usually does, result in positive student outcomes in all areas (Johnson Johnson, 1990; Kagan Kagan, 2009; Marzano, Pickering, Pollock, 2001; Slavin, 1996). Social interaction theory (Piaget, 1970; Vygotsky, 1978) and motivational theory (Maslow, 1954) both help explain the effectiveness of cooperative learning. Social interaction theory views learning as a social activity in which people learn by listening and talking to others. As Kauchak and Eggen (2007) explain: Piaget views this social interaction as a catalyst for students to reevaluate their own beliefs about the world; Vygotsky sees social interaction as a vehicle for more knowledgeable people to share their expertise with others. In both instances, students learn by listening and talking. (pp. 305-306) In his theory of motivation, Maslow (1954) described a hierarchy of needs that moves from lower needs (e. g. , hunger, safety) to higher needs (e. g. , esteem, belonging). He argued that people strive to meet their lower needs before attempting to meet the higher needs. In Kagan Cooperative Learning, Kagan and Kagan (2009) explain the relationship between MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation theory and the effectiveness of cooperative learning: If students do not feel safe and included, their energy is directed to meeting those deficiency needs and is not free to meet the need to know and understand. . . . When we put cooperative learning in place the need for safety is satisfied through social norms (no put downs; disagreeing politely). The need for inclusion is satisfied through teambuilding and classbuilding. . . . With the needs of safety and security satisfied, the students have more free energy to move up the hierarchy, striving for esteem and knowledge. (p. 4. 13) Moreover, in many classrooms, the majority of interactions are teacher-student, which can create a competitive environment as students vie for the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s approval. Cooperative learning helps balance this environment by encouraging students to work together to achieve learning goals. As Kagan and Kagan (2009) point out, Ã¢â¬Å"We live in an interdependent world in which, somewhat paradoxically, the ability to compete depends on the ability to cooperateÃ¢â¬ (p. 1. 18). Several prominent researchers have developed various models of cooperative learning. For example, two brothers, David and Roger Johnson, created the Learning Together and Student Controversy models (Johnson, Johnson, Holubec, 2002); Robert Slavin (1996) developed the Jigsaw II and Student Teams-Achievement Division models; and Spencer Kagan (1994) developed the Structural Approach to cooperative learning. Although different, these models each contain four defining elements of effective group interactions: 1) positive interdependence, 2) individual accountability, 3) equal participation, and 4) simultaneous interaction. Johnson, Johnson, and Holubec (2002) include a fifth elementÃ¢â¬âgroup processing. Numerous practitioner studies have examined the impact of cooperative learning on student achievement and social skills development. For example, Nesbit and Rogers (1997) describe the benefits of integrating cooperative learning with science, reading, and writing instruction. Using several of the different cooperative learning models, the authors found that each method was successful in helping students work together in science to solve problems while using the tools of reading and writing. They suggested, however, that teachers begin with the Kagan structural approach before attempting the more complicated models of cooperative learning. Similarly, Muth (1997) found that cooperative learning could be used effectively during mathematics instruction to increase student comprehension of word problems, as well as to help them develop problem-solving skills. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Using Cooperative Learning To Improve Reading and Writing in Mathematical Problem Solving,Ã¢â¬ she provides examples of how to implement cooperative learning in the mathematics classroom. Based on her experiences, Muth concludes that cooperative learning can improve reading and writing, as well as interpersonal skills, during mathematics instruction, particularly when students are working on problem-solving strategies. Bromley and Modlo (1997) found that cooperative learning helped maximize student learning in language arts instruction. A descriptive study of four teachers who implemented the Kagan Structural Approach during reading and writing instruction demonstrated the following benefits: 1) higher level thinking, 2) better communication between students, and 3) positive social relations. More recently, Law (2008) conducted two separate experimental studies on the effects of cooperative learning on 2nd-gradersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation and comprehension of text. In the first study, students in cooperative learning groups (n = 160) were compared with their counterparts in traditional instruction groups (n = 107). The results showed a significant difference between the two groups, with more favorable perceptions of teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ instructional practices and better reading comprehension in the experimental groups than in the control groups. In the second study, 51 second-graders participated in the instructional intervention program (cooperative learning). The results showed that studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ positive cooperative behavior and attitudes were related to their motivation and reading comprehension. When students perceived that their peers were willing to help each other and were committed to the group, they tended to be more motivated and performed better in reading comprehension. Numerous school-based studies in various grade levels have investigated the effects of using the Kagan Structural Approach to cooperative learning (Cline, 2007; Dotson, 2001; Howard, 2006; Murie, 2004). Consistently, these studies have shown positive effects on student achievement, attitudes, and engagement. Cline, for example, investigated the effects of using Kagan cooperative learning structures in her 5th-grade classes. During the 16-week study, she implemented the structures (e. g. , RallyCoach, RoundTable) during guided practice in one math class; in a comparison group, she used a more traditional method of instruction (e. g. , students working alone). Data collected from pre- and posttests revealed that the experimental group outperformed the comparison group on all measures of math achievement. Several studies have focused on the role of the teacher in implementing cooperative learning (Ding, Li, Piccolo, Kulm, 2007; Leonard McElroy, 2000; Lotan, 2003; Siegel, 2005). These studies concluded that the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions about how group tasks are set up, as well as his or her interventions during the group processing, are crucial to the success of cooperative learning in the classroom. In summary, findings from numerous studies demonstrate the positive outcomes of using cooperative learning throughout the curriculum. These benefits include improved academic performance, as well as enhanced social skills development. How to cite A Teacher Fosters Social Competence with Cooperative Learning, Papers
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
The financial crisis of 2008 affected the entire globe. One of the major outcomes of the crisis was the increase of public debt in many countries. Such potent economies as Germany, the UK, France, etc. had to face significant financial issues.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The recent European sovereign debt crisis, with particular focus on the Greek case specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At the same time such peripheral economies as Ireland, Greece, Spain, Portugal, etc. were in danger of complete collapse. Thus, in the period of 2007-2010 gross debt/GDP ratio Ã¢â¬Å"increased by 62.3% in Ireland, by 38.2% in Greece and by 36.3% in SpainÃ¢â¬ which is the largest increase (Kouretas Vlamis, 2010, p. 392). Admittedly, many countries face the same problem, i.e. increase of General Government Debt (see Fig. 1). However, it is clear that Greece had the most severe crisis (Young Semmler, 2011). Fig.1. Percentages of General Government Debt in Some Countries of Eurozone. It is necessary to note that Greece has suffered a great economic turmoil. The government had to implement various austerity measures. However, some of these measures have proved to be ineffective. It is possible to state that Greece should undergo a number of political, economic and social changes to overcome the aftermaths of the crisis and make sure that such a devastating crisis will never occur.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Interestingly, Greece was one of the fastest growing economies in the entire Eurozone in the early 2000s (Kouretas Vlamis, 2010). However, mismanagement of financial flows led to the increase of private debt. The government tried to decrease private debt with the help of loans, which led to increased public debt. Combined with severe global financial crisis increased public debt became on e of the major reasons of the economic crisis in Greece. Thus, in the late 2009 analysts expressed concerns about a sovereign debt crisis which led to the crisis of confidence (De Santis, 2012). In its turn, it affected other weak economies in the Eurozone. In 2010 the situation worsened and the International Monetary Fund provided Ã¢â ¬110 billion bailout to the country. In 2011 the IMF agreed to provide another bailout of Ã¢â ¬130 billion. However, the Greek government had to undertake certain measures. There were lots of talks about the second bailout as Greeks were against austerity measures suggested by the Eurozone leaders. There were a lot of riots in the country. The election which took place in June 2012 was regarded as decisive as the new government was to decide whether to use the plan offered by other European countries. However, the election proved to be quite unsuccessful as the new government failed to form the necessary coalition to develop a plan to follow. Now there are increasing talks about the so-called Ã¢â¬ËGrexitÃ¢â¬â¢. It is possible to define several reasons for the failure of the measures undertaken. In the first place, Greek governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s activities were erroneous. Thus, increased public expenditures caused the crisis.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The recent European sovereign debt crisis, with particular focus on the Greek case specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Greek government should have reconsidered the amount of these expenditures. Thus, according to Eurostat (2012) while Eurozone leaders cut their public expenditures during the most difficult periods in 2008-2009, Greece steadily increased these expenditures (see Fig.2). Fig. 2. Public Expenditures of Some Eurozone Countries on Labor Market Policies (% of GDP). Secondly, it took too much time for European countries to understand that the sovereign debt crisis in Greece was to be handled at once (Kouretas Vlamis, 2010). However, the Eurozone leaders hesitated. A lot of discussions were held and countries of Eurozone failed to foresee possible outcomes of such a severe crisis in Greece. Notably, Kouretas Vlamis (2010) point out that it was quite difficult to estimate the real conditions of the Greek economy as Greek governments often provided wrong data. Even when countries of Eurozone agreed that Greece needed help, they could not come to a single decision on what exactly could be done (Kouretas Vlamis, 2010). The researchers also note that even when the financial aid was provided, it could not be the necessary solution as European countries which had common currency (euro), had different monetary policies including tax policies, wage policies, budgetary policies, etc. (Kouretas Vlamis, 2010).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also important to note that cultural peculiarities did play an important role in escalation of the financial crisis in the country. Thus, Young and Semmler (2011) state that when Eurozone countries faced the crisis, many of them chose severe austerity measures. For instance, Germany cut public expenditures considerably (see Fig.2). However, the Greek government was not capable of implementing austerity measures. Greeks were also uneager to comply with austerity measures offered by the Eurozone leaders (Young Semmler, 2011). There were lots of riots. People protested against rising taxes, low wages, low pensions, etc. Interestingly, according to Eurostat (2012) the unemployment rate in Greece was not very high compared to other countries (even compared to the Eurozone leaders) (see Fig. 3). However, Greeks insist that austerity measures are far too severe. Fig. 3. Unemployment Rate in Some Eurozone Countries. The Greek government was in a very difficult position as the Eurozo ne leaders demanded implementation of austerity measures while Greeks demanded governmental support. Many people were waiting for the election which took place in June 2012 (Nadeau, 2012). Democratic forces won, but the election has not led to any outcomes as the new forces failed to form a coalition. Therefore, the Greek government is not ready to choose a path. Now many European analysts consider the so-called Grexit. Some claim that Greece should leave Eurozone as this will positively affect Eurozone as well as Greece (Buiter, 2012). Of course, there are people who think Grexit will negatively affect economies of other Eurozone countries. Supporters of the Grexit claim that this is the only way out, and it is rather inevitable. Admittedly, Greeks have already obtained certain financial support from Eurozone countries. However, Greeks are still reluctant to comply with the rules offered by the Eurozone leaders. This inability to follow the rules makes any other help meaningless or even harmful for economies of other countries. It is clear that the IMF or European Bank cannot afford allocating funds in such a thoughtless way. The Eurozone leaders should understand that Greece will follow the plan which can help the country overcome the crisis. Basically, the Eurozone leaders want Greece to follow their own ways, which have been quite successful. For instance, austerity measures have saved Germany from severe financial constraints and made the country one of the Eurozone leaders. Nonetheless, as has been mentioned above, Greece is too different. Greeks are eager to remain in Eurozone. They want to receive financial help. However, they are not ready for the austerity measures offered. They are still protesting and expressing their discontent with these measures. It is necessary to note that recent elections have confirmed that Greeks will not comply with the rules set by Eurozone leaders. Democratic forces have won. More so, the present leaders claim they are r eady to lead the country using Eurozone leadersÃ¢â¬â¢ paths. Therefore, Antonis Samaras, Greek Prime Minister, states that Greece should accept the rules offered as this will help the country overcome the crisis (Nadeau, 2012). However, the Prime Minister has failed to form a coalition so far. This can only mean that the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s political forces cannot come to a single solution. Of course, it is possible to try to form coalition, but now Greece has the only way out. The country needs one more election. However, this time it is essential to make people reconsider their future in the Eurozone. Political forces should have particular programs to follow. Greeks should understand that their exit from the Eurozone is inevitable. As has been mentioned above, the single European currency is not backed up by a single monetary policy (wage policy, tax policy, etc.). Euro has proved to be inappropriate for Greece. The country should return to drachma which can positively affect the development of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. First, it will enable Greeks to work out their own way out. They will not need to comply with the plan which is unacceptable for them due to various political, social and cultural peculiarities. Thus, Greek economy will be separated, so-to-speak. This separation will enable the economy to become a somewhat closed system. Greeks should not rely on other countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ assistance any more. However, it is important to note that Greece should not leave the EU. Greece should remain a part of various European organizations and incentives. Though, there should be a particular distinction between cooperation and complete reliance on external assistance. Basically, Greece should start from scratch. The first step is to hold another election. People as well as politicians should understand that it is time to cooperate. It is time to forget about any ambitions or personal goals. The country is to be led by a strong political force. The government should not be afraid of launching austerity measures. Of course, these measures should be appropriate. It is also necessary to reintroduce drachma. This Greek currency will help the country become competitive on the global scale. Though, some claim it can be associated with certain risks, the reintroduction of the national currency is inevitable. Of course, this process should be controlled by the government. Reintroduction of drachma should be implemented in several stages. Greek economy should be prepared for the change. In fact, it is necessary to note that all the countries of the EU should turn back to their national currencies as this will lead to financial balance. As has been mentioned above, the countries have different financial policies. It is but natural currencies should also be different. Perhaps, in future the EU countries will manage to work out a common policy (wage, taxes, budgeting policies). This will enable the countries to introduce a common currency. In fact, common currency should be one of the final stages of integration. In case of the Eurozone, introduction of euro was quite a hasty decision. However, there are also positive outcomes as now it is clear that the EU is not ready for a common currency. As far as Greece is concerned, the country should also pay special attention to private debt. The Greek government should not try to decrease private debt at the expense of public debt as it will inevitably lead to another sovereign debt crisis. It is important to note that private debt in Greece can be handled without loans. Fig. 4. Private Debt in % of GDP. Thus, according to Eurostat (2012) other Eurozone countries (even Eurozone leaders) have higher rates of private debt (see Fig. 4). Kouretas and Vlamis (2010) note that private debt was increasing in the period of the economic boom. Therefore, this process is inevitable and it should be handled accordingly. On balance, it is possible to note that the recent European sovereign debt crisis in Greece was caused by a number of reasons. On the one hand, the country failed to cope with the increase of private debt. The government tried to solve the problem with the help of loans from other Eurozone countries. On the other hand, Eurozone countries failed to address the urgent issues which contributed to escalation of the crisis in Greece. Finally, even financial support of the IMF and European bank did not work for the country as Greece was unable to accept the plan offered by Eurozone leaders. Of course, there are specific measures which can be undertaken to help the country overcome the crisis. Firstly, the country should have another election. Secondly, the country should reintroduce drachma. Finally, Greece should not try to handle increase of private debt at the expense of public debt. It is also important to note that the two latter measures can help other Eurozone countries overcome the aftermaths of the financial crisis. Reference List Buiter, W., (2012). Ra ce to save euro will follow Ã¢â¬ËGrexitÃ¢â¬â¢. Financial Times. Web. De Santis, R. A., (2012). The euro area sovereign debt crisis: Safe haven, credit rating agencies and the spread of the fever from Greece, Ireland and Portugal. Working Papers Series. Web. Eurostat, (2012). Statistics. Web. Kouretas, G. P. Vlamis, P., (2010). The Greek crisis: Causes and implications. Panoeconomicus, 4(1), 391-404. Nadeau, B. L., (2012). No Ã¢â¬ËGrexitÃ¢â¬â¢ after Antonis Samaras and new democracy win Greek Election. The Daily Beast. Web. Young, B. Semmler, W., (2011). The European sovereign debt crisis: Is Germany to blame? German Politics and Society, 97Ã (29), 1-24. This essay on The recent European sovereign debt crisis, with particular focus on the Greek case was written and submitted by user Alaina Hatfield to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 20, 2020
The Legacy Of The Medici Family Essays The Legacy Of The Medici Family Paper The Legacy Of The Medici Family Paper bbc. co. uk/dna/h2g2/A622919 (accessed November 26, 2007). Medici: Godfather of the Renaissance. pbs. org/empires/medici/renaissance/index. html (accessed November 26, 2007). Nygaard Ken. Ã¢â¬Å"Giovanni di Bicci Averardo de Medici. Ã¢â¬ historyworld. net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories. asp? historyid=aa24 (accessed November 25, 2007). The Medici Queens. saburchill. com/history/biblio/020. html (accessed November 26, 2007).
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Biography of Empress Elisabeth of Austria Empress Elisabeth (born Elisabeth of Bavaria; December 24, 1837 Ã¢â¬â September 10, 1898) was one of the most famous royal women in European history. Famed for her great beauty, she was also a diplomat who oversaw the unification of Austria and Hungary. She holds the title of the longest-serving Empress of Austria in history. Fast Facts: Empress Elisabeth of Austria Full Name:Ã Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie, Duchess in Bavaria, later Empress of Austria and Queen of HungaryOccupation: Empress of Austria and Queen of HungaryBorn: December 24, 1837 in Munich, BavariaDied: September 10, 1898 in Geneva, SwitzerlandKey Accomplishments: Elisabeth was AustriaÃ¢â¬â¢s longest-serving empress. Although she was often at odds with her own court, she had a special relationship with the Hungarian people and was instrumental in bringing about the uniting of Austria and Hungary in an equal, dual monarchy.Quote: Ã¢â¬Å"Oer thee, like thine own sea birdsÃ / Ill circle without rest / For me earth holds no cornerÃ /Ã To build a lasting nest.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â from a poem written by Elisabeth Early Life: The Young Duchess Elisabeth was the fourth child of Duke Maximilian Joseph in Bavaria and Princess Ludovika of Bavaria. Duke Maximilian was a bit eccentric and decidedly more progressive in his ideals than his fellow European aristocrats, which heavily influenced Elisabeths beliefs and upbringing. ElisabethÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood was much less structured than many of her royal and aristocratic counterparts. She and her siblings spent much of their time riding in the Bavarian countryside, rather than in formal lessons. As a result, Elisabeth (fondly known as Ã¢â¬Å"SisiÃ¢â¬ to her family and closest confidantes) grew to prefer a more private, less structured lifestyle. Throughout her childhood, Elisabeth was particularly close to her older sister Helene. In 1853, the sisters traveled with their mother to Austria in hopes of an extraordinary match for Helene. Ludovikas sister Sophie, mother of Emperor Franz Joseph, had tried and failed to secure a match for her son among major European royalty and instead turned to her own family. Privately, Ludovika also hoped the trip might secure a second marriage in the family: between Franz JosephÃ¢â¬â¢s younger brother, Karl Ludwig, and Elisabeth. A Whirlwind Romance and the Aftermath Serious and pious, Helene did not appeal to the 23-year-old emperor, although his mother expected he would obey her wishes and propose to his cousin. Instead, Franz Joseph fell madly in love with Elisabeth. He insisted to his mother that he would not propose to Helene, only to Elisabeth; if he could not marry her, he swore he would never marry. Sophie was deeply displeased, but she eventually acquiesced. Franz Joseph and Elisabeth married on April 24, 1854. The period of their engagement had been a strange one: Franz Joseph was reported by all to be full of joy, but Elisabeth was quiet, nervous, and often found crying. Some of this could certainly be attributed to the overwhelming nature of the Austrian court, as well as the reportedly overbearing attitude of her aunt-turned-mother-in-law. The Austrian court was intensely strict, with rules and etiquette that frustrated the progressive-minded Sisi. Even worse was her relationship with her mother-in-law, who refused to cede power to Elisabeth, who she viewed as a silly girl incapable of being an empress or mother. When Elisabeth and Franz Joseph had their first child in 1855, the Archduchess Sophie, Sophie refused to allow Elisabeth to care for her own child or even name her. She did the same to the next daughter, Archduchess Gisela, born in 1856. Following GiselaÃ¢â¬â¢s birth, the pressure increased even further on Elisabeth to produce a male heir. A cruel pamphlet was anonymously left in her private chambers that suggested the role of a queen or empress was only to bear sons, not to have political opinions, and that a consort who did not bear a male heir would be a scheming danger to the country. It is widely believed that Sophie was the source. Elisabeth suffered another blow in 1857, when she and the archduchesses accompanied the emperor to Hungary for the first time. Although Elisabeth discovered a deep kinship with the more informal and straightforward Hungarian people, it was also the site of great tragedy. Both her daughters fell ill, and the Archduchess Sophie died, only two years old. An Active Empress Following SophieÃ¢â¬â¢s death, Elisabeth retreated from Gisela as well. She began the obsessive beauty and physical regimens that would grow into the stuff of legend: fasting, rigorous exercise, an elaborate routine for her ankle-length hair, and stiff, tightly-laced corsets. During the long hours required to maintain all of this, Elisabeth was not inactive: she used this time to learn several languages, study literature and poetry, and more. In 1858, Elisabeth finally fulfilled her expected role by becoming the mother of an heir: the Crown Prince Rudolf. His birth helped her gain a larger foothold of power at court, which she used to speak on behalf of her beloved Hungarians. In particular, Elisabeth grew close to Hungarian diplomat Count Gyula Andrassy. Their relationship was a close alliance and friendship and was also rumored to be a love affair Ã¢â¬â so much so that, when Elisabeth had a fourth child in 1868, rumors swirled that Andrassy was the father. Elisabeth was forced away from politics around 1860, when several bouts of ill health caught up with her, along with stress brought on by the rumors of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s affair with an actress. She used this as an excuse to withdraw from court life for some time; her symptoms often returned when she returned to the Viennese court. It was around this time that she began standing her ground with her husband and mother-in-law, especially when they wanted another pregnancy Ã¢â¬â which Elisabeth did not want. Her marriage with Franz Joseph, already distant, became even more so. She relented, however, in 1867, as a strategic move: by returning to her marriage, she increased her influence in time to push for the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which created a dual monarchy in which Hungary and Austria would be equal partners. Elisabeth and Franz Joseph became King and Queen of Hungary, and ElisabethÃ¢â¬â¢s friend Andrassy became the prime minister. Her daughter, Valerie, was born in 1868, and became the object of all her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s pent-up maternal affection, sometimes to an extreme extent. The Hungarian Queen With her new official role as queen, Elisabeth had more excuse than ever to spend time in Hungary, which she gladly took. Even though her mother-in-law and rival Sophie died in 1872, Elisabeth often remained away from court, choosing instead to travel and to raise Valerie in Hungary. She dearly loved the Magyar people, as they loved her, and gained a reputation for her preference for Ã¢â¬Å"commonÃ¢â¬ people over mannered aristocrats and courtiers. Elisabeth was shattered with yet another tragedy in 1889 when her son Rudolf died in a suicide pact with his mistress Mary Vetsera. This left Franz Josephs brother Karl Ludwig (and, upon Karl Ludwigs death, his son Archduke Franz Ferdinand) as the heir. Rudolf had been an emotional boy, like his mother, who was forced into a military upbringing that did not suit him at all. Death seemed everywhere for Elisabeth: her father had died in 1888, her sister Helene died in 1890, and her mother in 1892. Even her steadfast friend Andrassy passed in 1890. Her fame continued to increase, as did her desire for privacy. Over time, she repaired her relationship with Franz Joseph, and the two became good friends. Distance seemed to help the relationship: Elisabeth was traveling extensively, but she and her husband corresponded often. Assassination and Legacy Elisabeth was traveling incognito in Geneva, Switzerland in 1898 when news of her presence leaked. On September 10, she and a lady-in-waiting were walking to board a steamer when she was attacked by Italian anarchist Luigi Lucheni, who wanted to kill a monarch, any monarch. The wound was not evident at first, but Elisabeth collapsed soon after boarding, and it was discovered that Lucheni had stabbed her in the chest with a thin blade. She died almost immediately. Her body was returned to Vienna for a state funeral, and she was buried in the Capuchin Church. Her killer was apprehended, tried, and convicted, then committed suicide in 1910 while in prison. ElisabethÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy Ã¢â¬â or legend, depending on who you ask Ã¢â¬â carried on in several ways. Her widower founded the Order of Elizabeth in her honor, and many monuments and buildings in Austria and Hungary bear her name. In earlier stories, Elisabeth was portrayed as a fairy-tale princess, likely because of her whirlwind courtship and because of the most famous portrait of her: a painting by Franz Xaver Winterhalter that depicted her with diamond stars in her floor-length hair. Later biographies attempted to uncover the depth of ElisabethÃ¢â¬â¢s life and inner conflict. Her story has captivated writers, musicians, filmmakers, and more, with dozens of works based on her life finding success. Instead of an untouchable, ethereal princess, she was often depicted as a complex, often unhappy woman Ã¢â¬â much closer to reality. Sources Hamann, Brigitte. The Reluctant Empress: A Biography of Empress Elisabeth of Austria. Knopf, 1986.Haslip, Joan, The Lonely Empress: Elisabeth of Austria. Phoenix Press, 2000.Meares, Hadley. The Tragic Austrian Empress Who Was Murdered By Anarchists. History.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
United Nations - Essay Example This is why the UN was set up while World War II was still going on. If the goals of the organization are peaceful, it is still essentially an organization that started as an alliance of powers against a common enemy, and was a military endeavor. Ã¢â¬Å"The 50 nations represented at San Francisco signed the Charter of the United Nations on June 26, 1945. Poland, which was not represented at the conference but for which a place among the original signatories had been reserved, added its name later, bringing the total of original signatories to 51Ã¢â¬ (Background, 2010). Of course, today, the UN serves as a peacekeeping organization more than a military one, but it remains effective nonetheless. concerned with essentially military matters through the extension of its most important facet, the Security Council. However, the drafters of the organization put into effect a rule of veto that has proved to make the UN somewhat ineffectual at times. Even when the Soviet Union had veto power, though, the UN remained a strong and viable organization. As time went on, the membership in the United Nations increased as new nations became de-colonized and joined the organization. With these new nations entering into the equation, things became more complicated as the number of nations increased from fifty to almost two-hundred. The UN accordingly turned to issues like the environment and human rights as important issues to tackle and began to try to legislate internationally. Ã¢â¬Å"UN membership is open to all "peace-loving states" that accept the obligations of the UN Charter and, in the judgment of the organization, are able and willing to fulfill these obligations. Admission to memb ership is determined by the General Assembly upon recommendation of the Security CouncilÃ¢â¬ (Background, 2010). The UN wanted to make peace, and therefore was well-suited for problems like human rights and the